Spencer Greene, MD, MS, FACEP, FACMT, FAACT, FAAEM is a board-certified medical toxicologist, addiction medicine specialist, and emergency physician who founded Bayou City Medical Toxicology and Emergency Medicine Consultants in 2019 to help physicians and other healthcare professionals provide better care of patients with toxicological emergencies, including envenomations, overdoses, and occupational exposures.

Dr. Greene currently serves as the Director of Toxicology and an attending emergency physician at HCA Houston Healthcare-Kingwood. He is a Clinical Professor at the University of Houston College of Medicine. He also has faculty appointments in the University of Texas Cizik School of Nursing and in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine.

Dr. Greene graduated from Washington University in St. Louis with a BA in psychology and biology. He earned an MS in immunology from C.W. Post, Long Island University. He graduated magna cum laude with an MD from Albany Medical College. He completed his emergency medicine residency at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and his medical toxicology fellowship at Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center.

Between residency and fellowship, Dr. Greene spent three years on active duty with the U.S. Air Force. While he was assigned to Wright-Patterson AFB he served as an Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine at the Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine Emergency Medicine Residency Program. He also served as the EMS director for WPAFB.

After completing his fellowship, Dr. Greene joined the faculty of the University of Arizona Department of Emergency Medicine. He was the Medical Toxicology Fellowship Program Director until 2012, when he moved to Houston.

From 2012 – 2019, Dr. Greene was the Director of Medical Toxicology in the Henry J.N. Taub Department of Emergency Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine. He previously served as a consulting toxicologist for Texas Children’s Hospital and the Southeast Texas Poison Center.

Dr. Greene has directed the Houston Venom Conference since 2013. He also served as the course director for the American College of Medical Toxicology Natural Toxins Academy.

Dr. Greene is a member of the following professional organizations:

  • American College of Medical Toxicology
  • American Academy of Clinical Toxicology
  • American College of Emergency Physicians
  • American Academy of Emergency Medicine
  • Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society
  • East Texas Herpetological Society
  • North American Society of Toxinology
  • Texas Medical Association
  • Southwestern Center for Herpetological Research


  1. Norton Rose Fulbright Faculty Excellence Award for Teaching & Evaluation – Baylor College of Medicine 2019
  2. Norton Rose Fulbright Faculty Excellence Award for Educational Leadership – Baylor College of Medicine 2019
  3. Baylor College of Medicine Early Career Faculty Award for Excellence in Patient Care 2017
  4. “Friend of Pediatric Emergency Medicine” Award – Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Texas Children’s
    Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine 2017
  5. M. Tyson Pillow award for Excellence in Education, Baylor College of Medicine Emergency Medicine Interest
    Group 2014
  6. Dean’s Award for Service – Vanderbilt University School of Medicine 2002
  7. David Doran Trager Award for Excellence in Surgery – Albany Medical College 2001
  8. Academic Achievement & Community Service Award – C.W. Post, Long Island University School of Health
    Professions 1997
  9. Houstonia magazine “Top Doctor” award – 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020
  10. Fellow, American College of Medical Toxicology
  11. Fellow, American Academy of Clinical Toxicology
  12. Fellow, American College Emergency Physicians
  13. Fellow, American Academy of Emergency Medicine
  14. Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society
  15. Golden Key National Honor Society
  16. Psi Chi Psychology Honor Society
  17. HCA Houston Healthcare – Kingwood Physician of the Quarter, 3rd Quarter 2023
  18. HCA Houston Healthcare – Kingwood “Best Educator” award for 2024

Selected bibliography

  1. Greene SC, Folt J, Wyatt K, Brandehoff NP. Epidemiology of fatal snakebites in the United States 1989 – 2018. Amer J Emerg Med. 2020; doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.08.083
  2. Greene, S. Coral Snake Envenomations in Central and South America. Curr Trop Med Rep (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40475-020-00197-z 
  3. Theophanous RG, Vissoci JRN, Wen FH, Griffin SM, Anderson VE, Mullins ME, Brandehoff NP, Quackenbush EB, Bush SP, Toschlog EA, Greene SC, Sharma K, Kleinschmidt KC, Charlton NP, Rose, SR, Schwartz R, Lewis B, Lavonas EJ, Gerardo CJ. Validity and reliability of telephone administration of the patient specific functional scale for the assessment of recovery from snakebite envenomation. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019; 13(12): e0007935. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007935 
  4. Lavonas EJ, Burnham RI, Schwarz J, Quackenbush E, Lewis B, Rose SR, Greene S, Toschlog EA, Charlton NP, Mullins ME, Schwartz R, Denning D, Sharma K, Kleinschmidt K, Bush SP, Anderson VE, Ginde AA, Gerardo CJ. Recovery from Copperhead Snake Envenomation: Role of Age, Sex, Bite Location, Severity, and Treatment. J Med Toxicol, 2019. ePub ahead of print, 2019- 09-04.
  5. Domanski K, Kleinschmidt KC, Greene S, Ruha AM, Berbata V, Onisko N, Campleman S, Brent J, Wax P. Cottonmouth snake bites reported to the ToxIC North American Snakebite registry 2013 – 2017. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019; 10.1080/15563650.2019.1627367
  6. Greene SC, Morales-Perez L, Pallini M, Vences C, Carnell J. LTE: “Comment on [Incidence of allergic reactions to Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab]” Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 DOI: 10.1080/15563650.2019.1618467
  7. Gerardo CJ, Vissoci JRN, de Oliveira LP, Anderson VE, Quackenbush E, Lewis B, Rose SR, Greene S, Toschlog EA, Charlton NP, Mullins ME, Schwartz R, Denning D, Sharma K, Kleinschmidt K, Bush SP, Brandehoff NP, Lavonas EJ. The validity, reliability and minimal clinically important difference of the patient specific functional scale in snake envenomation. PLoS ONE 14(3):e0213077. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213077
  8. Mullins ME, Gerardo CJ, Bush SP, Rose SR, Greene S, Quackenbush EB, Lewis B, Anderson VE, Kleinschmidt KC, Schwartz RB, Charlton NP, Toschlog EA, Sharma K, Denning DA, Lavonas EJ. Adverse Events in the Efficacy of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab Antivenom vs Placebo in Recovery from Copperhead Snake Envenomation. Southern Med J 2018; 111(12):716-20.
  9. Anderson VE, Gerardo CJ, Rapp-Olsson M, Bush SP, Mullins ME, Greene S, Toschlog EA, Quackenbush E, Rose SR, Schwartz RB, Charlton NP, Lewis B, Kleinschmidt KC, Sharma K, Lavonas EJ. Early administration of Fab antivenom resulted in faster limb recovery in copperhead snake envenomation patients. Clin Toxicol. 2019 Jan;57(1):25-30. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2018.1491982
  10. Labarinas S, Meulmester K, Greene S, Thomas J, Virk M, Erkonen G. Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation after Diphenhydramine Ingestion. J Med Toxicol. 2018 Sep;14(3):253-256. doi: 10.1007/s13181- 018-0672-6
  11. Greene S, Carey J. Puss Caterpillar Envenomation: Erucism Mimicking Appendicitis in a Young Child. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2018 May 23. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001514
  12. Greene S, Halmer T, Carey JM, Rissmiller BJ, Musick MA. Theophylline toxicity: an old poisoning for a new generation of physicians. Turk J Emerg Med. 2018 18(1):37-9.
  13. Galdamez L, Greene S. Occult valproic acid toxicity unmasked after physostigmine administration. SAS J Med. 2017; 3(12):335-8.
  14. Greene S, Galdamez L, Tomasheski R. White-lipped tree viper (Cryptelytrops albolabris) envenomation in an American viper keeper. J Emerg Med 2017; 53(6):e115-8. PMID: 29102099 DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.09.003
  15. Ruha AM, Kleinschmidt KC, Greene S, Spyres MB, Brent J, Wax P, Padilla-Jones A, Campleman S. The Epidemiology, Clinical Course, and Management of Snakebites in the North American Snakebite Registry. J Med Toxicol 2017; 13(4):309-20.
  16. Greene S, AufderHeide E, French-Rojas L. Toxicological emergencies in patients with mental illness: when medications are no longer your friends. Psych Clin NA 2017; 40 (3)519-32. PMID 28800806 DOI: 10.1016/j.psc.2017.05.007
  17. Gerardo CJ, Quackenbush E, Lewis B, Rose SR, Greene S, Toschlog EA, Charlton NP, Mullins ME, Schwartz R, Denning D, Sharma K, Kleinschmidt K, Bush SP, Ryan S, Gasior M. The Efficacy of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) Antivenom Versus Placebo Plus Optional Rescue Therapy on Recovery From Copperhead Snake Envenomation: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial. Ann Emerg Med 2017; doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2017.04.034
  18. Tucci V, Ahmed SM, Hoyer DR, Greene S, Moukaddam N. Stabilizing intentional overdoses in freestanding emergency departments: a good idea? J Gen Emerg Med 2017;2(1):1-5.
  19. Greene SC, Noonan PK, Sanabria C, Peacock WF. Effervescent N-Acetylcysteine Tablets versus Oral Solution N-Acetylcysteine in Fasting Healthy Adults: An Open-Label, Randomized, Single-Dose, Crossover, Relative Bioavailability Study. Curr Ther Res 2016; 83:1-7.
  20. Adair A, Greene SC, Greeley CS, Coleman RD, Shekerdemian LS. Synthetic cannabinoid exposure: a new risk for children? Clin Pediatr 2016; 55(11):1075-7. PMID: 27550872
  21. Aceves J, Nguyen T, Greene S, Moukaddam N, Tucci V. Dangerous Assumptions of Psychosis: A Near-Missed Case of Chronic Aspirin Toxicity. SAS J Med. 2016; 2(2):35-9.
  22. Andrabi S, Greene S, Moukaddam N, Li B. New Drugs of Abuse and Withdrawal Syndromes. Emerg Med Clin N Am 2015; 33:779-95. PMID: 26493523
  23. Greene SC, White N. Young Woman with Cardiac Arrest (Defatting Dermatitis following Chloroform Exposure) Ann Emerg Med. 2014; 64(3):231, 247.
  24. Hiller K, Viscusi C, Beskind D, Bradshaw H, Berkman M, Greene S. Cost of an Acting Intern: Clinical Productivity in the Academic Emergency Department. J Emerg Med 2014; 47(2):216-22.
  25. Greene S, Harris C, Singer J. Gastrointestinal Decontamination of the Poisoned Patient. Pediatr Emerg Care 2008; 24:176-186. PMID: 18347499
  26. Greene SC, Brooks DE, LoVecchio F. Effect of Activated Charcoal on Citalopram-Induced QT Prolongation. Ann Emerg Med 2007; 50:593
  27. Rice N, Greene S. Don’t get burned by hydrofluoric acid toxicity. EM Resident 2019 Available at https://www.emra.org/emresident/issue-page-folder/latest-articles/19302
  28. Greene S. Think you Know about Copperhead Envenomations? Think Again. Wild Snakes: Education and Discussion. Available at https://wsed.org/seriousness-of-copperhead-envenomations/
  29. Greene S. Coral Snake Envenomations. Wild Snakes: Education and Discussion. Available at https://wsed.org/coralsnake-envenomations/
  30. Greene S. Pre-hospital Management of Snakebites. Wild Snakes: Education and Discussion. Available at https://wsed.org/snakebite-management-pre-hospital/
  31. Greene S. In-hospital Management of Snakebites. Wild Snakes: Education and Discussion. Available at https://wsed.org/snakebite-management-in-hospital-pit-vipers/
  32. Greene S. Synopsis of Snakebite Cases in the Houston, Texas Area in 2016. SWCHR Bulletin 2016; 6(4):74-6.
  33. Web-based continuing education. Walter FG, Crounse D, Greene S, Shirazi F, Munger B, Meislin HW:  “Basic Hazmat Life Support (BHLS),” 2011.
  34. Web-based continuing education. Walter FG, Crounse D, Greene S, Shirazi F, Munger B, Meislin HW:  “Basic Hazmat Life Support (BHLS),” 2010.
  35. Greene S. Antivenom. In: Petty, MR, A Primer on Reptiles and Amphibians. Elm Grove, LA: Louisiana Exotic Animal Resource Network; 2018
  36. Liu J, Greene S. Unusual Complications of Alcohol Withdrawal. emDocs. May 2018. Available at http://www.emdocs.net/unusual-complications-of-alcohol-withdrawal/
  37. Greene S, Tucci V. Is that Skin Lesion an Infection or an Envenomation? In: Mattu A, Chanmugam AS, Swadron SP, Woolridge D, Winters M, eds. Avoiding Common Errors in the Emergency Department. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2017
  38. Greene S. Hydroxocobalamin for Cyanide Poisoning. In: Aaronson EL, Antonsen EL, Venkatesh AJ, eds. Emergency Medicine Evidence: the Practice Changing Studies. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2015
  39. Greene S. Cnidaria Envenomation. Medscape Reference. Updated February 03, 2015. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/769538-overview
  40. Greene S, O’Connor A. Carbamazepine Poisoning. Up-to-date. Last updated February 2019
  41. Rosenfeld E, Greene S, Naik-Mathuria B. Bites. In: Holcomb GW, Murphy JP, St. Peter SD, eds. Holcomb and Ashcraft’s Pediatric Surgery, 7th ed. Elsevier 2019
  42. Bush SP, Cohen JP, Greene S. Widow spider envenomations. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. Updated May 28, 2020. Available at: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/772196-overview

  43. Greene S, Bush SP. Snakebites. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. Updated May 8, 2020. Available at: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/168828-overview
  44. Greene SC, Brandehoff NP. Comment on “Failure of a Mexican antivenom on recovery from snakebite-related coagulopathy in French Guiana”. Clin Toxicol. 2020; doi: 10.1080/15563650.2020.1800722
  45.  Greene S, Ruha AM, Campleman S, Brent J, Wax P. Epidemiology, clinical features, and management of Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener) envenomations reported to the North American Snakebite Registry. J Med Toxicol. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13181-020-00806-3
  46. Greene S, Sekhon N. Loperamide-induced stercoral colitis. Vis J Emerg Med. 2020;21:100828. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visj.2020.100828
  47. Greene S, Cheng D, Vilke GM, Winkler G. How should native crotalid envenomation be managed in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2021

  48. Cohen N, Mathew M, Davis A, Brent J, Wax P, Schuh S, Freedman SB, Froberg B, Schwarz E, Canning J, Tortora L, Hoyte C, Koons AL, Burns MM, McFalls J, Wiegand TJ, Hendrickson RG, Judge B, Quang LS, Hodgman M, Chenoweth JA, Algren DA, Carey J, Caravati EM, Akpunonu P, Geib AJ, Seifert SA, Kazzi Z, Othong R, Greene SC, Holstege C, Tweet MS, Vearrier D, Pizon AF, Campleman SL, Li S, Aldy K, Finkelstein Y; ToxIC Pediatric Opioid Exposure Study Group. Predictors of severe outcome following opioid intoxication in children. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2022 Mar 25:1-6. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2022.2038188. PMID: 35333145

  49. Gerardo CJ, Godfrey AW, Greene SC. Antivenom does not cause snakebite complications, withholding it does. Am Surg. 2022; doi: 10.1177/00031348221082289
  50. Basse J, Ruha AM, Baumgartner K, Mullins ME, Greene S, Wax PM, Brent J, Campleman S, Schwarz ES. Clinical Presentations, Treatments, and Outcomes of Non-native Snake Envenomations in the United States Reported in the North American Snakebite Registry. J Med Toxicol. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13181-022-00912-4

  51. Greene SC, Cue K, Khan R, Gilbert MB, Rahimi J. Captive Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) Bite Leading to Respiratory Failure. J Emerg Med. Published online January 15, 2023

  52. Greene SC, Wyatt K, Cates A, Weiss S. Anticonvulsant fatalities reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers 2000 – 2019. Seizure-Eur J Epilep. 2023; published online Jan 16, 2023

  53. Greene S, Gilbert M, Wolk B, Campleman S, Ruha AM, ToxIC Snakebite Study Group. Geographic variation in the clinical features of Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) envenomations reported to the North American Snakebite Registry. Toxicon: X. 2023 Nov 10:100171.

  54. Levine M, Brent J, Wiegand T, Maguire B, Cohen N, , David Vaerrier, Michael Beuhler, Jerrold B. Leikin, Michael Ganetsky, Samuel Stellpflug, Anne-Michelle Ruha, Jennifer Carey, Ann-Jeannette Geib, Dazhe James Cao, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Rais Vohra, Brad D. Riley, Phillip Moore, Evan Schwarz, Mark Neavyn, Daniel E. Rusyniak, Spencer Greene, Joshua Nogar, Alex Manini, Mary Wermuth, Anthony Pizon, Robert G. Hendrickson, Matthew Griswold, Kim Aldy, Paul Wax, Meghan Beth Spyres, Sharan Campleman, Erin Macdonald, Yaron Finkelstein & on behalf of the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (2023) Lipid emulsion therapy during management of the critically-ill poisoned patient: a prospective cohort study, Clinical Toxicology, DOI: 10.1080/15563650.2023.2248372